HERE ARE A LIST OF TERMS THAT YOU CAN REFERENCE

A

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Aggregate

A hard inert material of mineral composition such as sand, gravel, slag, or crushed stone, used in pavement applications either by itself or for mixing with asphalt binder.

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Aggregate Gradation

The particle size distribution from the largest through finest materials.

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Fine-Graded Aggregate

A gradation having a continuous grading in sizes of particles from coarse through fine with more material smaller than the primary control sieve.

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Air Voids

Empty spaces in a compacted mix surrounded by asphalt-coated particles, expressed as a percentage by volume of the total compacted mix.

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Alligator Cracks

Interconnected cracks forming a series of small blocks resembling an alligator’s skin or chicken-wire, and caused by excessive deflection of the surface over unstable subgrade or lower courses of the pavement.

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Asphalt (Asphalt Binder or Asphalt Cement)

A dark brown to black cementitious material in which the predominating constituents are bitumens which occur in nature or are obtained in petroleum processing. Asphalt is a constituent in varying proportions of most crude petroleums.

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Asphalt Binder

Asphalt cement that is classified according to the Standard Specification for Performance Graded Asphalt Binder, AASHTO Designation MP1. It can be either unmodified or modified asphalt cement, as long as it complies with the specifications.

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Asphalt Concrete

A high quality, thoroughly controlled mixture of asphalt binder and high-quality aggregate, which can be thoroughly compacted into a uniformly dense mass.

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Asphalt Distributor

A truck or a trailer having an insulated tank, heating system and distribution system. The distributor applies asphalt to a surface at a uniform rate.

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Asphalt Emulsion

An emulsion of asphalt binder and water that contains a small amount of an emulsifying agent. Emulsified asphalt droplets may be of either the anionic (negative charge), cationic (positive charge) or nonionic (neutral).

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Asphalt Leveling Course

A course of hot mix asphalt of uniform or variable thickness used to eliminate irregularities in the contour of an existing surface prior to placing the subsequent course.

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Asphalt Pavement Structure

A pavement structure that is designed and constructed so that all courses above the subgrade are asphalt concrete (Full-Depth Asphalt Pavement).

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Asphalt Primer

Low viscosity asphalt (highly liquid) that penetrates into a non-bituminous surface upon application.

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Asphalt Rubber – Asphalt Concrete (AR-AC)

High quality, thoroughly controlled hot mixture of asphalt rubber binder (AR) and well-graded, high quality aggregate, which can be thoroughly compacted into a uniform dense mass.

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Asphalt Tack Coat

A relatively thin application of asphalt binder applied to an existing asphalt concrete or PCC surface at a prescribed rate. Asphalt emulsion diluted with water is the preferred type. It is used to form a bond between an existing surface and the overlying course.

B

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Base Course

The layer of material immediately beneath the surface or intermediate course. It may be composed of crushed stone, crushed slag, crushed or uncrushed gravel and sand, or of hot mix asphalt, typically with larger size aggregate.

C

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Cold Mix Asphalt

A mixture of emulsified or cutback asphalt and aggregate produced in a central plant (plant mix) or mixed at the road site (mixed-in-place). Cold mix asphalt can be produced and stored for usage at a later date.

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Compaction

The act of compressing a given volume of material into a smaller volume. Insufficient compaction of the asphalt pavement courses may accelerate the onset of pavement distresses of various types.

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Crack

An approximately vertical random cleavage of the pavement caused by traffic loading, thermal stresses and/or aging of the binder.

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Curing

The development of the mechanical properties of the asphalt binder. This occurs after the emulsion has broken and the emulsion particles coalesce and bond to the aggregate.

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Density

The degree of solidity that can be achieved in a given mixture, which will be limited only by the total elimination of voids between particles in the mass.

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Drum Mix Plant

A manufacturing facility for producing asphalt paving mixtures that proportions, dries, and mixes the aggregate with a proportional amount of asphalt in a drum. Variations of this type of plant use several types of drum modifications, separate (and smaller) mixing drums, coating units (coater), or double-barreled configurations to accomplish the mixing process.

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Durability

The property of an asphalt paving mixture that represents its ability to resist disintegration from the environment and traffic.

F

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Fine Aggregate

Aggregate passing the 2. 36 mm (No. 8) sieve.

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FOG SEAL

A light application of diluted asphalt emulsion. It is used to renew old asphalt surfaces, seal small cracks and surface voids, and inhibit raveling.

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Full-Depth Asphalt Pavement

The term FULL-DEPTH (registered by the Asphalt Institute with the U. S. Patent Office) certifies that the pavement is one in which asphalt mixtures are employed for all courses above the subgrade or improved subgrade. A Full-Depth asphalt pavement is placed directly on the prepared subgrade.

G

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Grade Depressions

Localized low areas of limited size.

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Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA)

High quality, thoroughly controlled hot mixture of asphalt binder (cement) and well-graded, high quality aggregate, which can be compacted into a uniform dense mass.

L

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Lift

A layer or course of paving material applied to a base or a previous layer.

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Lime Treated Subgrade

A subgrade preparation technique in which the subgrade soil and added lime are mechanically mixed and compacted to produce a higher modulus base material than the in-situmaterial.

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Longitudinal Crack

A vertical crack in the pavement that follows a course approximately parallel to the centerline.

M

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Milling Machine

A self-propelled unit having a cutting head equipped with carbide- tipped tools for the pulverization and removal of layers of asphalt materials from pavements.

P

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Pavement Structure

A pavement, including all of its courses of asphalt-aggregate mixtures, or a combination of asphalt courses and untreated aggregate courses, placed above the subgrade or improved subgrade.

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Potholes

Bowl-shaped openings in the pavement resulting from localized disintegration.

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Power Sweeper

A power operated rotary broom used to clean loose material from the pavement surface.

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Pumping

Slab deflection under passing loads sometimes resulting in the discharge of water and subgrade soils along joints, cracks and pavement edges.

R

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Raveling

The progressive separation of aggregate particles in a pavement from the surface downward or from the edges inward.

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Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP)

Excavated asphalt pavement that has been pulverized, usually by milling, and is used like an aggregate in the recycling of asphalt pavements.

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Reclaiming Machine

A self-propelled unit having a transverse cutting and mixing head inside of a closed chamber for the pulverization and mixing of existing pavement materials with asphalt emulsion. Asphalt emulsion (and mixing water) may be added directly through the machine by a liquid additive system and spray bar.

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Recycled Asphalt Mix

A mixture produced after processing existing asphalt pavement materials. The recycled mix may be produced by hot or cold mixing at a plant, or by processing the materials cold and in-place.

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Reflection Cracks

Cracks in asphalt overlays (usually over deteriorated PCC pavements) that reflect the crack pattern in the pavement structure below it.

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Residue

The asphalt binder that remains from an asphalt emulsion after the emulsifying agent has broken and cured, or the remains of a cutback after the volatile shave cured.

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Resistance Value(R-value)

A test for evaluating bases, subbases, and subgrades for pavement thickness design.

S

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Seal Coat

A thin surface treatment used to improve the surface texture and protect an asphalt surface. The main types of seal coats are fog seals and chip seals.

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Sheet Asphalt

A hot mixture of asphalt binder with clean, angular, graded sand and mineral filler. Its use is ordinarily confined to reservoir liners and landfill caps; usually laid on an intermediate or leveling course.

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Slurry Seal

A mixture of emulsified asphalt, well-graded fine aggregate, mineral filler or other additives, and water. A slurry seal will fill minor cracks, restore a uniform surface texture, and restore friction values.

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Soil/Cement Base

A hardened material formed by curing a mechanically mixed and compacted mixture of pulverized soil, portland cement and water used as a layer in a pavement system to reinforce and protect the subgrade or subbase.

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Subgrade

The soil prepared to support a pavement structure or a pavement system. It is the foundation of the pavement structure.

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Subgrade, Improved

Subgrade that has been improved as a working platform by: 1) the incorporation of granular materials or stabilizers such as asphalt, lime, or portland cement into the subgrade soil; 2) any course or courses of select or improved material placed on the subgrade soil below the pavement structure.